Over the last decade there have been increase in the incidences of Farmers suicide in India .
Indian farmers especially small and marginal are under great stress. As per NSSO 70th round findings ,which estimated more than 50% of farm households are in debts,farm holdings of 90% shrinking to less than 2 hectares.
Generalised issue of small and marginal farmer that is leading to suicide:
A. Vagaries of monsoon– over 60% of indian agriculture dependent on monsoon.
B. Costly farm equipments and agricultural inputs like seed , pesticide, fertilizer makes agricultural practices unviable.
C. Less Penetration of banking system in rural areas coupled with reluctance of some banks to provide credit to farmer due to low return on capital issue.
D. Distorted cropping pattern: monoculture, not based upon soil quality assessment e.g. cultivation of sugarcane in Vidarbha region Maharashtra.
E.Small and marginal farmers are mostly from lower cast so are generally ousted of there land by higher cast people.
F.Lack of awareness of government schemes such as loan waver schemes which are generally taken by middle and large farmers
1. Integrated Pest Management: as it was done in case of Vietnam through no spray policy.
2. State Seed Policy: Development of weather and disease resistant seed.
3. Precise farming technique: Systematic Rice Intensification (SRI) precision farming solutions help farmers to produce more with less.
4. Contract Farming: promote this along with formation of custom hiring centre mainly through CSR fund so as to avail farming equipment to marginal farmer.
5. Early Warning System: Farmer will not take unsustainable loans in case of predicted drought like situation in region and can grow less water water intensive crops like pulses. Incentivising farmer to opt for livestock so as to get additional income.
6. Farmer Centric: With the help of NABARD & local bodies prepare a list of highly indebted farmers in the region for better counselling, interest subvention scheme.
7. Universal Health Coverage to reduce out of pocket expenditure of farmers on health issues.
8. Cottage industry and dry land agriculture can be promoted .
9. Agriclininc and MSME need to be promoted along with Mega food parks .
10. PRIs need to be strengthened to look after issues of weaker sections of the society .
Hence inclusive approach is required to reduce farmer suicide issue through involvement of agricultural university, state intervention in active policy formation as mere transfer of money will not suffice and capacity building of farmer as they say
Give a man/women a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man/women to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. We must to do the later thing.